Fidya is to be paid in circumstances when a person is unable to fast due to helplessness and cannot make up the fast outside of Ramadan. A donation of £5 per missed fast (per day) is required for each individual. This donation aims to feed the hungry two meals a day.
Some examples of where Fidya would be due include:
Kaffarah is due in circumstances where a fast is invalid or intentionally broken.
Situations that necessitate Kaffarah
There are three situations in which Kaffarah, in relation to fasting, is due.
1. Sexual relations
Sexual relations break the fast and necessitates tawbah. A person who breaks their fast in this way will need to make up the broken fast of that day and give Kaffarah. Normally, this necessitates the freeing of 1 slave; if this is not possible, a person must fast 60 consecutive days without any break, per broken fast; and if this is not possible, and only if the above methods of kaffarah are deemed not possible, then a person must pay for the feeding of 60 poor people per missed or broken fast, at the rate of £5 per person (£5 x 60), equating to £300 per broken fast.
2. Breaking the fast intentionally without due reason
Breaking the fast intentionally without due reason (other than sexual relations i.e. eating) necessitates tawbah, and a person must make up the broken fast of that day. Scholars may differ in this regard, however, the majority of the scholars state that should a person break their fast in this manner, they would need to increase in good deeds, seek forgiveness and make up the broken fast, and this is sufficient.
Some scholars differ and state that in addition to the above, a person will need to give the kaffarah, much in the same way as that of sexual relations. For a person following this opinion, this normally would require a person to free 1 slave; if this is not possible, then a person must fast 60 consecutive days without any break, per broken fast; if this is not possible, and only if the aforementioned methods of kaffarah are deemed not possible, then a person must pay for the feeding of 60 poor people per each missed or broken fast, at the rate of £5 per person (£5 x 60), equating to £300 per broken fast.
3. Delayed fast over 1 year
If a person has some missed fasts from a past Ramadan, (for instance, due to travelling, women who are unable fast due to menstruation or pregnancy etc) and without a valid reason (i.e. long-term sickness, ill health, regular medication that prevents fasting etc) have not completed their missed fasts before the next Ramadan, then they are still required to make up these fasts after the Ramadan. In addition to making up these fasts, a person must feed 1 poor person the equivalent of 1 muud (approximately 750g of food) per fast, at the rate of £5 per fast missed. For example, if a person has missed 6 fasts, they are required to complete those fasts and pay £30 kaffarah (£5 x 6 fasts).